There are three DIY wheel alignment calculators on this page. One for Toe, one for Camber and one for Castor.
Below each calculator is a video which shows how to get the measurements you need.
Plug the measurements into the calculator and it will output the toe/camber/caster in millimetres and degrees.
To measure the wheel alignment of caster and camber it is critical that the four wheels are at exactly the same height and at the vehicle ride height, ie not jacked up.
The methods detailed in the videos need no special tools, although specialist tools will make the job much easier. You may be able to get away with using a smartphone (like in this video) for caster and camber if the phone is accurate enough. A dedicated device, like in this video, will make things even easier.
Out of all the measurements, toe is probably the most involved.
DIY Wheel Alignment – Toe
DIY Wheel Alignment – Camber
DIY Wheel Alignment – Caster
Note: This method is unorthodox because we are only measuring caster when the front of the wheel, is turned inwards. Usual measurements are taken by turning wheel 20 degrees in one direction, measure as described in the video below, turn the wheel 20 degrees in the other direction, (40 degrees from first measurement) and add the two angles together. For more information on the orthodox method see this page, this Wiki article and this suspension secrets article.